For Jacques-François Marchandise, the digital solutions meant to serve the ecological transition are often counterproductive, and likely to worsen the problems they seek to solve (5G, carpooling, mass deployment of sensors and real-time measurements).
Moreover, the manufacture of devices represents 70% of the carbon footprint of the digital industry in France.
Increasing the reparability of products is therefore one of the key issues to improve its environmental impact in the long term.
Jacques-François Marchandise offers insight into how the digital revolution - which lacks a precise goal but has significant resources - can truly serve the ecological transition.
Personal data – which includes all information that identifies a person, from their location to their biometric fingerprints – is particularly sought after by companies, as it allows for better targeting of advertising.
The CNIL (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés) is responsible for protecting the personal data of French citizens, notably by enforcing European GDPR.
Marie-Laure Denis, president of the CNIL, looks back at the many changes in the European regulatory framework that occurred in 2020, which have improved data protection in EU member states.
She also explains how personal data can also be essential to conduct effective public policies – especially in the context of the health crisis.
Professor of Economics at Université de Technologie de Compiègne
For Yann Moulier Boutang, we are currently entering a new capitalist model, which he calls “cognitive” – no longer based on physical work, but on brain activity.
He says that a parallel can be drawn between the positive externalities generated by digital technology (creativity, cooperation, etc.) and pollination: for a long time, humans have focused on selling honey (the finished product), whereas the most productive activity of bees was pollination, which generates between 500 and 5,000 times more value.
This model of massive data capture and processing has brought about a real revolution in science, with a return to the inductive method based on collective intelligence, which has made it possible to solve problems as complex as that of the “translation machine”.
But it also raises the question of the commodification of our leisure time, and of intellectual property.
Lecturer in information systems management at Télécom Paris and researcher at the Interdisciplinary Institute of Innovation (I³-SES/CNRS)
Laure Muselli's research focuses on how new logics such as digital transformation or open source change work, professions, identities and practices within organisations.