Director of Rights and Digital Studies at Télécom Paris (IP Paris)
AI is not outside the law. Whether its RGPD for personal data, or sector-specific regulations in the health, finance, or automotive sectors, existing regulations already apply.
In Machine Learning (ML), algorithms are self-created and operate in a probabilistic manner. Their results are accurate most of the time, but risk of error is an unavoidable characteristic of this type of model.
A challenge for the future will be to surround these very powerful probabilistic systems with safeguards for tasks like image recognition.
Upcoming EU AI regulations in the form of the “AI Act” will require compliance testing and ‘CE’ marking for any high-risk AI systems put on the market in Europe.
Professor at Sorbonne University (Chair in Artificial Intelligence)
Symbolic AI is based on certain rules, which reproduce human reasoning. This approach is said to be “inherently explainable”, with a few exceptions.
Statistical approaches to AI rely on statistical learning methods; it is difficult to extract and express the rules of what its neural networks do.
The need for explainability comes from different issues around trust, ethics, responsibility, and also possibly economic issues.
Hybrid AI can address this problem by combining several AI approaches. It combines knowledge and data, symbolic AI and neural networks, logic, and learning.
But, whatever the approach, the role of the human being remains essential, and it will always be necessary to justify the decisions made by an algorithm.
Sophy Caulier has a degree in Literature (University Paris Diderot) and in Computer science (University Sorbonne Paris Nord). She began her career as an editorial journalist at 'Industrie & Technologies' and then at 01 Informatique. She is now a freelance journalist for daily newspapers (Les Echos, La Tribune), specialised and non-specialised magazines and websites. She writes about digital technology, economics, management, industry and space. Today, she writes mainly for Le Monde and The Good Life.