Research engineer at ESDR3C (CNAM) and Lecturer at Sciences Po Paris
Hybrid threats come from states that add information manipulation to conventional warfare, but also from hybrid, criminal or terrorist entities.
Taking these hybrid threats into account calls for hybrid responses: the “war before the war”.
“Augmented prevention” would combine the sword (armed drones, cyber offensives, and offensives in the broader “cyber” field) to act externally and the shield (cyber security and security through cyber) to protect our territories.
Europe needs to increase its capabilities in this area, especially as we now need to update our responses in anticipation of these threats: the challenges posed are technological, legal, and ethical.
Expert at the Geneva Geostrategic Observatory and Lecturer in Geopolitics of Russia at Université Paul Valéry
Professor of Information and Communication at Institut Français de Presse (University of Paris 2 - Assas)
Information is an essential weapon in times of war, especially when the conflict is so close to home.
In France, mainstream information tends to support a singular point of view which can lead people to seek different sources of information.
Russia has created fake sites from where information is relayed by fake accounts to influence mainstream sources.
Fake accounts and fake news are intended to distort the narrative and sow doubt.
It is the image of the West that is being targeted: fake accounts do more damage in societies where anti-Western sentiment is already present.
Journalist and Author
Editor of Telos and author, Richard Robert teaches at Sciences Po. He directed the Paris Innovation Review from 2012 to 2018. Latest books: Le Social et le Politique (dir., with Guy Groux and Martial Foucault), CNRS éditions, 2020, La Valse européenne (with Élie Cohen), Fayard, published in March 2021.